Smyth, CE & MZ Li. 2005. Wave-current bedform scales, orientation, and migration on Sable Island Bank. J Geophysical Research, 110(C02023).

Abstract: “Field observations of wave-current bedforms on Sable Island Bank show that medium to large bedforms were generally aligned with the wave direction, and did not follow the rotating tidal current. Normalized bedform heights and wavelengths were larger than predictions by Nielsen (1992), but agreed well with predictions by Khelifa and Ouellet (2000) which includes current effects. Maximum observed bedform wavelengths of 1.9 m were larger than those predicted for bedforms in wave-dominated nearshore conditions, but this may be expected as the water depths are larger (20–42 m) and currents are present. Measured bedform migration rates had higher vector correlation amplitudes when compared to significant wave velocity than with current velocity or skewness. Migration rate predictions from three presently available models were not able to predict net migration rate and direction in all cases.”