Lucas, Z & P-Y Daoust. 2002. Large increases of harp seals (Phoca groenlandica) and hooded seals (Cystophora cristata) on Sable Island, Nova Scotia, since 1995. Polar Biology 25: 562-568.

Abstract: “Beach surveys for harp (Phoca groenlandica) and hooded (Cystophora cristata) seals documented a dramatic increase in their numbers on Sable Island in mid-1990s. From late 1994 to 1998, 1,191 harp and 870 hooded seals, mostly young animals, were recorded on the island whereas, in the 1980s, no more than 5 animals of both species were observed each year. Of the 2,061 harp and hooded seals examined, 41.7% were found alive, 26.7% were killed by sharks, and 31.6% were found dead but intact. This increase in numbers of harp and hooded seals on Sable Island, which is south of their historic northern range, is consistent with the recent increase of extralimital occurrences of these species along the east coast of North America. However, the large number of seals recorded in this study provides more information their demography than has previously been possible.”